This post was originally written for the WordPress blog I ran in addition, but I want to get rid of this. This is an updated English version of the original post there.

It’s such a thing with password managers. On the one hand, you want to use them for storing individual passwords for each service. On the other hand, though, you have to entrust all your data to some service. Over the past time, I tried a lot of those, and I want to share my experience, concerns and opinion on the tools and services I used. Using generated passwords and not reusing them is one thing I really think improves the overall security of all your accounts. You really want to use this. And here are a few options for you.


LastPass [1] was the first service I tried, and I even re-visited the service when writing the original post. Initially, I was using the premium version, but after the trial, I continued the free version. It was actually working quite well, including the checks for leaked passwords, across many devices. IPhone and IPad were no surprise, like Windows - but even the browser integration on Linux worked reasonably well. The password audits for weak and reused passwords came in handy, and the service helps you change passwords quickly. In general, the company seems to be quite responsive when they had security issues in the past, but this is of course no audit of LastPass.

But now, let’s go for the downside, and what is blocking me from using LastPass as my personal driver. You cannot add an arbitrary number of URLs for a password entry, to use it like on different services on the intranet. You can only define equivalent domains, but those must not include subdomains. This is a serious limitation for me, and maybe for you.


1Password is another commercial provider, but without a free model. You get a trial period after which you have to buy a subscription. I was using this service for a while after ditching LastPass, because the integration on my iOS devices is rather nice, they also offer proper browser integration across all platforms. They even provide a command line interface, but this was rather complicated to use. Actually it’s not a bad service, with good features, but I found it was too expensive.


On my journey, I encountered Bitwarden [3]. This software is open source, and you can either get an account hosted by them, or you can host it yourself. In both cases, you can get a paid option for extra features like sharing of passwords etc. I would have been willing to spend that money to support open source, especially as I can host my own server. From the feature side, this is almost en par with LastPass and 1Password, with the big plus of hosting this on your own infrastructure - which for me is something I want have.

Update: I discovered a second implementation of the server component, which uses way less ressources and seems to be quite usable [8].


Pass [4] is completely different. Every password is just a plain text file with meta-information like username, URL, etc. and your password in it. Each of these files is encrypted with gpg [5], a technology widely used for securing communication via e-mail (and a lot more, of course). At least for me, using this was quite easy, as I am already using gpg a lot. But that’s just half the thing - you want that store synchronized across your devices. Pass is using git [6] to synchronize your passwords. In my case, with a self-hosted service using Gitea [7] and a private repository. Initial setup is a bit more challenging, you need to create keys for gpg and for ssh, distribute them, etc. But then, this is working like a charm. On Linux and iOS I never had any problems. The only problematic platform for me was Windows, but this is only used for occasional gaming, anyway, so I don’t care too much.


For me, there are a few considerations. The most important when it comes to IT security is, in my opinion, trust. And I’m not sure how much you should trust companies with your passwords. Current developments in Germany depict a scenario where those providers could be forced to give your passwords to law enforcement in plain text. I promise, when they need to have plain text passwords stored, these will also leak to criminals. For me, personally, a self-hosted open source solution is the only way to go with this. For me, as Linux power user, Pass is the perfect solution. If you are interested in a proper introduction/how to setup all this, send a mail blog at frankenmichl dot de. In case you are interested: I started a small project to convert my 1Password data into pass, you can find it on my git server

Even though I would still consider Pass the perfect solution, I’m using Bitwarden in the meantime. It has proven itself to be rock solid and reliable, it is easy to use on other operating systems (like Windows) and - that’s the main reason: my wife is finally using it now, too. I don’t dare trying to teach her to use Git..